Library Glossary | SKL

Library Glossary



  • AACR2 (The second edition of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules): General rules for descriptive cataloging and access points.
  • Abstract: A summary or brief description of the content of another longer work. An abstract is often provided along with the citation to a work.
  • Access: In general, the availability of information; ability or privilege to obtain wanted materials such as books. Direct access allows one to go directly to the stacks for books or periodicals.
  • All rights reserved: A phrase printed in or on a published work, usually on the verso of the title page of a book, giving formal notice that all rights granted under existing copyright law are retained by the copyright holder and that legal action may be taken against infringement.
  • Annual: Serial published with annual chronological designation; may or may not actually be published once a year.
  • Archives: Public records or historical documents, or the place where such records and documents are kept.
  • Article: A brief work-generally between 1 and 35 pages in length - on a topic. Often published as part of a journal, magazine, or newspaper.
  • Ask a librarian: An electronic means of asking reference librarians questions concerning library materials unique to the libraries' collections or other library related information.
  • Attachment: A separate file (e.g., text, spreadsheet, graphic, audio, video) sent with an email message.
  • Authentication: In online systems, the procedure for verifying the integrity of a transmitted message. Also, a security procedure designed to verify that the authorization code entered by a user to gain access to a network or system is valid. In SKL, it is user name, ID number and PIN.
  • Author: The person(s) or organization(s) that wrote or compiled a document. Looking for information under its author's name is one option in searching.


  • Barcode: A small label of closely spaced bars that can be read by a computer. Barcodes on books and on IDs are used to charge out materials from the library.
  • Biennial: Issued every two years. Also refers to a serial publication issued every two years.
  • Bimonthly: Issued in alternate months (six times per year). Also refers to a serial issued every other month.
  • Biweekly: Issued every two weeks. Also refers to a serial issued at two-week intervals.
  • Bibliographic citation: A record for a bibliographic entity, which may be in any format (printed text, computer file, video recording, musical score, etc.)
  • Bibliography: A list containing citations to the resources used in writing a research paper or other document. See also Reference
  • Book: A relatively lengthy work, often on a single topic. May be print or electronic.
  • Boolean operator: A method of combining search terms by expressing the relationship of one concept to another generally using 'and', 'or', 'not'.
  • Borrowing privileges: The rights to which a library borrower is entitled, usually established by registering to receive a library card. Such privileges normally include the right to check out books and other materials from the circulating collection for a designated period of time, interlibrary loan use of special collections etc. They may be suspended if remain unpaid.
  • Broader term: In a hierarchical classification system a subject heading or descriptor that includes another term as a subclass, for example, "Libraries" listed as a broader term under "School libraries."


  • Call number: A group of letters and/or numbers that identifies a specific item in a library and provides a way for organizing library holdings. The Library of Congress Classification System is used at Suna Kıraç Library. Also the Library of School of Health Sciences (SON) uses NLM (National Library of Medicine) call numbers.
  • Catalog: A list of items such as books, periodicals, maps and/or videos arranged in a defined order. The list usually records, describes and indexes the resources of a collection, a library or a group of libraries.
  • Check-in: To bring a borrowed item back to a library on due date or before the time. Check-in periods vary from library to library. Items are checked in through the Circulation/Reserve Desks or self-check machines.
  • Check-out: To borrow an item from a library for a fixed period of time in order to read, listen to, or view it. Check-out periods vary from library to library. Items are checked out through the Circulation/Reserve Desks or self-check machines.
  • Circulation: Activity centered in Circulation and Reserve Desks. 1. The lending of books (or other materials) to borrowers and the keeping of records of loans. 2. The total number of volumes lent during a given period of use outside the library.
  • Citation: A note of reference to a work from which a passage is quoted, or to some source of authority for a statement.
  • Collection: This term may refer to the library's entire collection of materials, or to a group of library materials having a common characteristic, such as rare collection or reference collection.
  • Consortia (consortium): Formal organizations of two or more institutions which seek to attain specific goals through cooperation (e.g. Anatolian University Libraries Consortium - ANKOS).
  • Copyright: The exclusive rights to publication, production or sale of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work as authorized by the legislation.
  • Course reserves: See Reserve materials


  • Daily: Issued on a daily basis, with the possible exception of Sundays. Also refers to a serial issued daily, especially a newspaper.
  • Database: A collection of data stored in a computer system in such a way that it may be retrieved by different means to form compilations for various purposes.
  • Descriptor: A word that describes the subject of an article or book; used in many computer databases.
  • Dictionary: A dictionary is a book of alphabetically listed words in a specific language, with definitions, etymologies, pronunciations, and other information; or a book of alphabetically listed words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon.
  • Digital library: A library in which a significant proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format (as opposed to print or microform), accessible by means of computers. The digital content may be locally held or accessed remotely via computer networks.
  • Directory: A list of people, companies, institutions, organizations, etc., in alphabetical or classified order, providing contact information (names, addresses, phone/fax numbers, etc.) and other pertinent details (affiliations, conferences, publications, membership, etc.) in brief format, often published serially (example: American Library Directory). In most libraries, current directories are shelved in the reference stacks.
  • Dissertation: An extended written treatment of a subject (like a book) submitted by a graduate student as a requirement for a doctorate. See also Thesis
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier): DOIs are used to create permanent and stable URLs for publications which appear on the web. They help to reduce the number of dead links we may come across when browsing.
  • Document delivery: A service that retrieves or photocopies information sources for library users. Some libraries restrict document delivery services to distance education students, faculty members, or graduate students.
  • Due date: The date when borrowed library materials should be returned or renewed.


  • Encyclopedia: A work containing information on all branches of knowledge or treating comprehensively a particular branch of knowledge (such as history or chemistry). Often has entries or articles arranged alphabetically.
  • E-book: A version of a traditional print book designed to be read on a personal computer or an e-book reader (a software application for use on a standard-sized computer or a book-sized computer used solely as a reading device.
  • E-journal: A periodical that is available in an electronic or computerized form such as on the Web or on CD-ROM.
  • Edition: All copies of a work printed from one setting or type. A change in edition, such as a "new edition" or "second edition," would imply a revision of the work and a change in content.
  • Electronic reserve (or e-reserve): An electronic version of a course reserve that is read on a computer display screen. See also Reserve materials.
  • Electronic resource: Material consisting of data and/or computer program(s) encoded for reading and manipulation by a computer, by the use of a peripheral device directly connected to the computer, such as a CD-ROM drive or remotely via a network, such as the Internet. The category includes software applications, electronic texts, bibliographic databases, institutional repositories Web sites, e-books, collections of e-journals, etc.
  • Endnote/ Footnote: A statement printed at the end of a chapter or book to explain a point in the text, indicate the basis of an assertion, or cite the source of a concept, idea, quotation, or piece of factual information. Like footnotes, endnotes are numbered, usually in superscript, and listed in the sequence in which they appear in the text.


  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol): Method used for transferring electronic files from one computer to another.
  • Fine: The amount of money which is owed by the borrower if library material is not returned when the book is recalled by the library.
  • Fulltext: An electronic resource that provides the entire text of a single work (example: Britannica Online) or of articles published in one or more journals, magazines, and/or newspapers.


  • Grace period: An established period of time subsequent to the due date during which a library borrower may return items to the library without incurring a fine.


  • Hand out: A printed sheet or group of sheets, usually stapled together at one corner, intended for distribution during an oral presentation or instruction session to give the attendees a record of content covered (summary, outline, hard copy of PowerPoint slides, etc.) or to provide supplementary or complementary information (supporting data, examples, suggestions for further reading, contact information, etc.).
  • Hands on: A library instruction session or one-on-one reference transaction in which the student or user has the opportunity to practice, usually at a computer workstation, research techniques demonstrated by the instructor or reference librarian, often more effective than lecture-style instruction.
  • Hard cover/ Hardback: A cloth or buckram bound volume.
  • Hold: A request by a user to a library that a material checked out to another person be saved for that user when it is returned. “Holds” can generally be placed on any regularly circulating library materials through an in-person or online.
  • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language): The computer language used to create documents on the World Wide Web so that they are readable by web browsers.
  • Hyperlink: A synonym for both link and hypertext link. Users click on hyperlinks to access other documents on the web. Hyperlinks often appear in different colors, or underlined in a webpage.


  • ILL (Interlibrary Loan): The service that obtains materials from other libraries when an user needs items not available in the library system.
  • IM (Instant Messaging): An Internet-based service allowing real-time, text communication between two or more users. It is used in a library in order to meet user’s information needs as quickly as possible.
  • Imprint: Publication information about a work most often found at the bottom of the title page or on the verso. It usually contains the name and location of the publisher and when the book was published.
  • Index: A tool for finding citations, abstracts, or completes text; arranged usually in alphabetical order of some specified datum (author, subject, or keyword).
  • Information: Data presented in readily comprehensible form to which meaning has been attributed within the context of its use. In a more dynamic sense, the message conveyed by the use of a medium of communication or expression.
  • Information literacy: Information literacy is knowing when and why we need information, where to find it, and how to evaluate, use and communicate it in an ethical manner.
  • In transit: If an item has been returned to the library, but has not been re-shelved in its call number location, the catalog will indicate the items status as “In Transit”. If users need “In Transit” items immediately, they may inquire at the Information Desk.
  • Irregular: The frequency of a serial publication issued at intervals of uneven length that follow no established or discernible rule.
  • ISBN (International Standard Book Number): A unique 10-digit code assigned to a specific edition of a book before it is published. Since 1 January 2007, International Standard Book Numbers have been of 13 digits.
  • ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): A unique 8-digit code assigned to the specific title of a serial.
  • Issue: One of a series published periodically.


  • Journal: Generally a more “scholarly” periodical than a magazine. Examples: Nature, Environmental Geology, American Journal of Health Behavior.
  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group): A standard for compressing still images in digital format at ratios of 100:1 and higher. Data compression is accomplished by dividing the image into small blocks of pixels, halved again and again until the desired ratio is reached.


  • Keyword: A significant or memorable word or term in the title, abstract, or text of an information resource that indicates its subject and is often used as a search term.


  • Library use only: A circulation status code written on or affixed to a physical item in a library collection and entered in the item record in the catalog, indicating that it is available for use within the walls of the library but may not be checked out and removed from the premises except by special arrangement. The use of reference books, periodical indexes, and in some cases bound and/or unbound periodicals is generally restricted to the library. Use of items in special collections, such as rare books and manuscripts, may even be restricted to a designated room or area of the library (and other conditions of use)
  • Limiting: A feature of well-designed online catalog or bibliographic database software that allows the user to employ various parameters to restrict the retrieval of entries containing the terms included in the search statement.


  • Magazine: A periodical containing news, stories or articles on various subjects and written for general readership (as opposed to a scholarly or technical audience).
  • Manuscript: A handwritten or typed composition, rather than printed.
  • MARC (Machine-Readable Cataloging): The basis of almost all automated cataloging systems; a standardized format for bibliographic description developed by the Library of Congress in the 1960's.
  • MeSH (Medical Subject Headings): A system of subject headings related to the medical fields. At the Library of School of Nursing, these subject headings are used.
  • Metasearch: A search for information using software designed to optimize retrieval by querying multiple web search engines and combining the results. The term is also used in the more general sense of one-search access to multiple electronic resources.
  • Monthly: Issued once a month (12 times per year) with the possible exception of one or two months, usually during the summer. Many magazines and some journals are published monthly (example Monthly Labor Review).
  • Multimedia: Any information resource that presents information using more than one media (print, picture, audio, or video).


  • Narrower term: In a hierarchical classification system, a subject heading or descriptor representing a subclass of a class indicated by another term, for example, "Music librarianship" under "Librarianship."
  • Newspaper: A publication containing information about varied topics that are pertinent to general information, a geographic area, or a specific subject matter (i.e. business, culture, education). Often published daily.


  • Off campus access: Accessing databases through the library web site requiring authentication information as user name, ID number, and PIN, while the person is away from the campus.
  • OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog): Computerized library catalog accessed via terminals or workstations. It has replaced the card catalog in university and larger public libraries. It is also referred to as "online catalog.
  • Oversize book/journal: A book/journal that, because of its large size, cannot stand on the regular shelves and are placed on other shelf or shelf units in the library.


  • PDF (Portable Document Format): A universal file format that preserves all of the fonts, formatting, colors, pagination, and graphics of the source document. PDF files retain their original formatting and look like photographs of the original documents. Adobe Acrobat® Reader software installed on a computer to view or download a PDF file.
  • PIN (Personal Identification Number): An acronym for personal identification number, a code used in automated systems to identify authorized users. Whether the PIN is created by or issued to the user depends on the policy governing access to the system. The practice originated in the banking industry and is used in some libraries and library systems t o verify that a user is registered to use electronic resources restricted by icensing agreement, and other services to which the library prefers to restrict access.
  • Paperback: A book published in paper covers, rather than in hardcover, usually adhesive bound. Paperback editions are normally published after the hardcover edition of the same title and sold at a lower price, which has made them a staple of the retail market for fiction and nonfiction. Synonymous with paperbound and softcover. Abbreviated pb, pbk, and ppr.
  • Peer reviewed journal: Journal containing scholarly articles which have been reviewed by scholars whose expertise and stature are similar to the author’s.
  • Periodical: See Serial
  • Print: The written symbols of a language as portrayed on paper. Information sources may be either print or electronic.
  • Primary sources: An original record of events, such as a diary, a newspaper article, a public record, or scientific documentation.


  • Quarterly: Issued four times a year. Also refers to a serial issued every three months, usually in spring, summer, fall, and winter. Most scholarly journals are published quarterly.


  • Rare Books: Books that are valued for the significance of their contents, their scarcity, their imprint or date of publication, their physical characteristics or condition, or their associations (signed or annotated by a famous author, for instance).
  • Recall: A request for the return of library material before the due date.
  • Refereed journal: See Peer reviewed journal
  • Reference: 1. A service that helps people find needed information. 2. Sometimes "reference" refers to reference collections, such as encyclopedias, indexes, handbooks, directories, etc. 3. A citation to a work is also known as a reference.
  • Reference librarian: Reference librarians are specialists in the field of information retrieval. Reference librarians work in public services answering questions posed by library users at the reference desk, by telephone, via e-mail, or through an online chat session. They also provide instruction on the use of library resources and information technology.
  • Remote access: See Off campus Access.
  • Renewal: A lengthening of the loan period for library materials.
  • Reserve materials: In academic libraries, materials given a shorter loan period (one-hour, three-hour, overnight, three-day, etc.) for a limited period of time (usually one term or semester) at the request of the instructor, to ensure that all the students enrolled in a course have an opportunity to use them. Items on closed reserve must be used on library premises.


  • Scope: In libraries, the range of subjects or fields cover in a catalog, index, abstracting services, bibliographic database, reference work, etc.
  • Secondary sources: Materials such as books and journal articles that analyze primary sources. Secondary sources usually provide evaluation or interpretation of data or evidence found in original research or documents such as historical manuscripts or memoirs.
  • See also: A referral to an additional source of information often found in catalogs or glossaries. Example: Dog See also Canine.
  • Self-check machine: Bar-code reading machines for users to check out materials themselves, rather than checking materials out at the circulation desk. ID card and PIN are required to use this machine. A user is provided with a receipt indicating due dates.
  • Semiannual: I ssued at intervals of six months. Also refers to a serial issued every six months.
  • Semimonthly: Issued twice each month or every two weeks. Also refers to a serial issued twice a month, with the possible exception of certain issues. Synonymous with biweekly.
  • Serial: Publications such as journals, magazines and newspapers that are generally published multiple times per year, month, or week. Serials usually have number volumes and issues. The words journal, magazine, periodical, and serial may be used interchangeably.
  • Server: A host computer on a network, programmed to answer requests to download data or program files, received from client computers connected to the same network. Also refers to the software that makes serving clients possible over a network. Servers are classified by the functions they perform (application server, database server, fax server, file server, intranet server, mail server, proxy server, terminal server, web server, etc.).
  • Subject heading: The word or phrase used to describe the subject content of a material such as book, dvd etc, and a database or a catalog. Library of Congress Subject Headings are used at the Library.
  • Synonym: Synonym is a word or phrase that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word or phrase.


  • Thesaurus: When an index or database uses Controlled Vocabulary (a standardized word or phrase list), the thesaurus is an alphabetical listing of the terms currently in use. The thesaurus will also show relationships between terms such as synonymous or related terms, hierarchical arrangements (broader terms, narrower terms), and provide references from terms not currently in use to acceptable terms, including older words or phrases that are no longer used.
  • Thesis: Treatise prepared as part of an academic study leading to a higher degree. See also Dissertation.
  • Title: The name of a book, article, or other information source.
  • TOC (Table Of Contents): A list of chapter titles and other parts of a book, or of articles in a periodical, with references to pages where each listing begins. Also called “contents”.
  • Topic: The subject matter for research or discussion.
  • Triennial: Issued every three years.
  • Truncation: Truncation is a method of including all the possible ending forms of a word or replacing a letter/s within a word through the use of a symbol. Truncation symbols are sometimes referred to as a “wildcard” symbols.


  • Username: A permanent code that an authorized user must enter into a computer system to log on and gain access to its resources, usually consisting of the full name or surname plus the initial(s) of the given name(s) or plus one or more arabic numerals.
  • User ID: A number or name unique to a particular user of computerized resources. A user ID must often be entered in order to access library resources remotely.
  • URL (Uniform Resource Locator): Uniform Resource Locator or web address. Usually in the form of http://host.subdomain.domain.


  • Volume: A number of issues of a periodical, usually a year.


  • Web site: A group of related, interlinked web pages installed on a web server and accessible 24 hours a day to Internet users equipped with browser software.
  • Weekly: Issued once a week. Also refers to a serial issued once a week. Most newsmagazines and some newspapers are published weekly.
  • Wireless: The name given to any electronic device that sends messages through space via electric or electromagnetic waves instead of via power cords.
  • WW (World Wide Web): A network of information, as a part of the internet, that includes text, graphics, sounds, and moving images. Also know as the web or www or w3. It incorporates a variety of Internet tools into one method of access, such as the web browser Internet Explorer, Safari, or Firefox.
  • XML (Extensible Markup Language): A subset of the SGML markup language in which the tags define the kind of information contained in a data element (i.e., product number, price, etc.), rather than how it is displayed. "Extensible" means that XML tags are not limited and predefined as they are in HTML--they must be created and defined through document analysis by the person producing the electronic document. Designed to meet the needs of large-scale electronic publishing, XML is a flexible text format that can be used with HTML in the same Web page.


  • Zip drive/zip disk: Devices used in the creation of compressed (or “zipped”) electronic information.